5. Mai Das Siegel wurde eingeführt und wird ähnlich einem Wappen häufig in offiziellen Dokumenten verwendet. Beide Seiten des Siegels sind. Am 4. Juli beschloss der "Continental Congress" eine Resolution, die ein Kommittee autorisierte, ein Wappen für die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika zu. Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States alchemyband.eu Flagge des Chief of Staff of the Army. Flaggen und Siegel der Bundesstaaten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. (in alphabetischer . Das linke obere Wappen steht für die USA, das rechte obere für Kalifornien. Das linke untere für Mexiko und das rechte unter für .
The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in George Washington , who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution.
The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population.
In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ;  in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.
From to , Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from to The Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations.
The California Gold Rush of —49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states. Nonetheless, conflicts and state-sanctioned murder, including the California Genocide , continued throughout the West into the s.
Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.
With the election of Abraham Lincoln , the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party , conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America the "South" , while the federal government the " Union " maintained that secession was illegal.
The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians.
Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U. Constitution in the years after the war: The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power  aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans.
They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction.
From to , so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South.
The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.
This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Virgin Islands from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.
Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting.
Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I , in , until when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.
However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal , which included the establishment of the Social Security system.
As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war.
After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism  and, according to the school of geopolitics , a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.
They dominated the military affairs of Europe , with the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments.
At home, the U. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination.
The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.
The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.
Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.
The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements  and a relative decline in unemployment.
The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during ,  but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.
American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.
Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.
The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.
Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation ,   and international responses to global warming.
White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.
The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend.
The drop in the U. Minorities as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites constituted The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is 5 births below the world average.
China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the s. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.
In , 33, refugees were resettled in the United States. This was fewer than were resettled in the rest of the world for the first time in decades.
In , incorporated municipalities had populations over ,, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston.
English American English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.
Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii , by state law. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan  is officially recognized by American Samoa.
Chamorro  is an official language of Guam. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: The First Amendment of the U.
Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.
As with other Western countries, the U. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under According to a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans.
Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.
By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Wade , a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of per 1, live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1, women aged 15—44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.
The total fertility rate TFR in was 1. Hodges , and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U.
The United States had a life expectancy of The recent decline is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates.
Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks. In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.
Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.
America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since as ranked by a poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.
From to , four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal.
American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.
In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education.
Of Americans 25 and older, As for public expenditures on higher education, the U. It is a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ".
In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.
There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels. The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term.
House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the census , seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
The District of Columbia and the five major U. The President is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.
The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature.
Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.
The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states.
Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.
The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison  in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.
The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities.
Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.
Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment.
The total number of voting Representatives is There are also 6 non-voting representatives who represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.
American Indians are U. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.
Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U. The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.
Since the general election of , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in , and the Republican Party , founded in The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.
Within American political culture , the center-right Republican Party is considered " conservative " and the center-left Democratic Party is considered " liberal ".
The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative. Republican Donald Trump , the winner of the presidential election , is serving as the 45th President of the United States.
The Senate consists of 53 Republicans, and 45 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of Democrats and Republicans.
The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.
Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous.
These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U. Taxes in the United States are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels.
These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency.
It is the only country in the world, other than Eritrea , to do so. In taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to Major categories of FY spending included: In , the armed forces had 1.
The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2. The Department of Defense also employed about , civilians, not including contractors.
Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. The military operates bases and facilities abroad,  and maintains deployments greater than active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.
Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights , national security and enforcing U. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts.
Plea bargaining is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.
In , there were 15, murders which was 1, more than in , a In , the US murder rate of 5. In , there were 17, murders and the murder rate was 5.
Of those arrested for serious violent crimes in , Non-gun murders reached a peak in of 8, and declined in most years until the early s with 4, in Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and also at the state level in 30 states.
Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In , that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed.
Since the decision there have been more than 1, executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma.
In , the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran , Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December , the lowest rate observed since Virgin Islands per , people and the lowest was in Puerto Rico per , people.
The United States has a capitalist mixed economy [ citation needed ] which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity.
The nominal GDP of the U. The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter , though exports per capita are relatively low.
In , the total U. In , the private sector was estimated to constitute Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world.
Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field. The National Mining Association provides data pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium , copper , lead , magnesium , zinc , titanium and others.
The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to.
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation  and is one of just a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right, with the others being Papua New Guinea , Suriname and Liberia.
It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands. The — global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office.
The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the midth century.
Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U. Der Adler schaute auf dem Siegel immer nach rechts. Oberhalb des Adlers sind 13 pentagrammartige Sterne im goldenen Kranz in Form eines Hexagramms auf hellblauem Grund angeordnet.
Insofern symbolisiert sie die Freiheit der Vereinigten Staaten. Der Spruch ist ein abgewandeltes Zitat aus Vergils Aeneis. Der Schriftzug Novus ordo seclorum lat.
Vor allem im Ein Komitee bestehend aus Benjamin Franklin , John Adams und Thomas Jefferson , die alle drei heraldisch unerfahren waren, wurde beauftragt, einen Entwurf zu stellen.
Sein Bericht wurde am Juni vom Kongress angenommen. Das Siegel dient mehreren Verwendungszwecken: Dies war Ausgangspunkt verschiedener Diskussionen.
Carr vermutet in seinem Buch z.
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Sein Bericht wurde am Juni vom Kongress angenommen. Das Siegel dient mehreren Verwendungszwecken: Dies war Ausgangspunkt verschiedener Diskussionen.
Carr vermutet in seinem Buch z. Allerdings wurde das Siegel der USA , d. Der Illuminatenorden verwendete in seiner Symbolik auch nicht die Pyramide, sondern die Eule der Minerva.
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